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Old April 4th 20, 11:10 PM posted to rec.radio.amateur.moderated,rec.radio.amateur.dx
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Default [KB6NU] 2020 Extra Class study guide: E1C - Rules pertaining to automatic and remote control; band-specific regulations; operating in, and communicating with foreign countries; spurious emission standards; HF modulation index limit; bandwidth definit


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2020 Extra Class study guide: E1C - Rules pertaining to automatic and
remote control; band-specific regulations; operating in, and communicating
with foreign countries; spurious emission standards; HF modulation index
limit; bandwidth definition

Posted: 04 Apr 2020 06:42 AM PDT
http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/kb6nu...m_medium=email


An important concept in the rules governing amateur radio is the concept of
station control and the control operator. The control operator is the
licensed radio amateur who is responsible for the transmissions of a
station, and the location of that operator is called the control point.
There are three ways that a control operator can control a station: local
control, remote control, or automatic control.

When the control operator is present at the station he or she is
controlling, we say that the station is under local control. Control
operators do not, however, have to be physically present at the station
they are controlling. They can control a station via a radio link or via
the internet, for example. If that link malfunctions, however, a
remotely-controlled station may only transmit for up to 3 minutes..
QUESTION: How do the control operator responsibilities of a station under
automatic control differ from one under local control? (E1C03)

ANSWER: Under automatic control the control operator is not required to be
present at the control point
QUESTION: What is the maximum permissible duration of a remotely controlled
stations transmissions if its control link malfunctions? (E1C08)

ANSWER: 3 minutes

When a station is being automatically controlled, the control operator need
not be at the control point. Repeater stations, for example, are usually
automatically controlled, and the control operator is normally not at the
control point. One thing to keep in mind is that an automatically
controlled station may never originate third party communications.
QUESTION: When may an automatically controlled station originate third
party communications? (E1C05)

ANSWER: Never
IARP and CEPT licenses, third-party traffic

To operate in certain countries of the Americas, U.S. amateurs can apply
for an International Amateur Radio Permit (IARP). Countries that accept an
IARP include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, El Salvador, Panama, Paraguay,
Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States of America, Uruguay, and
Venezuela. In the U.S., IARPs are issued by the ARRL.
QUESTION: What is meant by IARP? (E1C04)

ANSWER: An international amateur radio permit that allows U.S. amateurs to
operate in certain countries of the Americas

The CEPT agreement allows an FCC-licensed U.S. citizen to operate in many
European countries, and alien amateurs from many European countries to
operate in the U.S. There are 40 European countries that allow you to
operate under the CEPT agreement. If you do plan to operate in a foreign
country under the CEPT agreement, make sure to obtain and bring with you a
copy of FCC Public Notice DA 16-048.
QUESTION: Which of the following operating arrangements allows an
FCC-licensed U.S. citizen to operate in many European countries, and alien
amateurs from many European countries to operate in the U.S.? (E1C11)

ANSWER: CEPT agreement
QUESTION: Which of the following is required in order to operate in
accordance with CEPT rules in foreign countries where permitted? (E1C06)

ANSWER: You must bring a copy of FCC Public Notice DA 16-1048

Although not a licensing issue, §97.117 notes, “Transmissions to a
different country, where permitted, shall be limited to communications
incidental to the purposes of the amateur service and to remarks of a
personal character.”
QUESTION: Which of the following types of communications may be transmitted
to amateur stations in foreign countries? (E1C02)

ANSWER: Communications incidental to the purpose of the amateur service and
remarks of a personal nature
Bandwidth and other technical requirements

Part 97 contains a number of rules relating to technical requirements that
amateur radio stations must adhere to. For example, the maximum bandwidth
for a data emission on the 60-meter band is 2.8 kHz, the same as a SSB
phone emission. According to §97.3(a)(8), the bandwidth of a signal is,
“The width of a frequency band outside of which the mean power of the
transmitted signal is attenuated at least 26 dB below the mean power of the
transmitted signal within the band.”
QUESTION: What is the maximum bandwidth for a data emission on 60 meters?
(E1C01)

ANSWER: 2.8 kHz
QUESTION: At what level below a signals mean power level is its bandwidth
determined according to FCC rules? (E1C07)

ANSWER: 26 dB

There is also a regulation that specifies allowable levels of spurious
emissions from an amateur radio transmitter. §97.307(d) states, “For
transmitters installed after January 1, 2003, the mean power of any
spurious emission from a station transmitter or external RF power amplifier
transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHz must be at least 43 dB below the
mean power of the fundamental emission.” Transmitters installed before
January 1, 2003 have more lenient requirements.
QUESTION: What is the permitted mean power of any spurious emission
relative to the mean power of the fundamental emission from a station
transmitter or external RF amplifier installed after January 1, 2003 and
transmitting on a frequency below 30 MHz? (E1C10)

ANSWER: At least 43 dB below

And a random question about modulation index on the 10 meter band.
QUESTION: What is the highest modulation index permitted at the highest
modulation frequency for angle modulation below 29.0 MHz? (E1C09)

ANSWER: 1.0
630 meter and 2200 meter band regulations

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) allocated the 630 meter
band (472 – 479 kHz) to amateur radio operators at the 2012 World
Radiocommunications Conference (WRC-12). Although phone operation is
permitted across the entire band, you must first notify the Utilities
Technology Council (UTC) of your plans to do so. The reason for this is
that in some areas of the country, power utilities use those frequencies to
transmit data over the power lines, and they want to avoid any interference
between amateurs and the utilities.
QUESTION: On what portion of the 630 meter band are phone emissions
permitted? (E1C12)

ANSWER: The entire band
QUESTION: What notifications must be given before transmitting on the 630
meter or 2200 meter bands? (E1C13)

ANSWER: Operators must inform the Utilities Technology Council (UTC) of
their call sign and coordinates of the station
QUESTION: How long must an operator wait after filing a notification with
the Utilities Technology Council (UTC) before operating on the 2200 meter
or 630 meter band? (E1C14)

ANSWER: Operators may operate after 30 days, providing they have not been
told that their station is within 1 km of PLC systems using those
frequencies

The post 2020 Extra Class study guide: E1C – Rules pertaining to automatic
and remote control; band-specific regulations; operating in, and
communicating with foreign countries; spurious emission standards; HF
modulation index limit; bandwidth definition appeared first on KB6NUs Ham
Radio Blog.


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2020 Extra Class study guide: E1B - Station restrictions and special
operations: restrictions on station location; general operating
restrictions; spurious emissions; antenna structure restrictions; RACES
operations

Posted: 03 Apr 2020 01:24 PM PDT
http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/kb6nu...m_medium=email


Part 97 places many different restrictions on how amateurs can use their
stations and specifies technical standards that amateur radio station must
meet. For example, some rules set standards for spurious emissions, which
are emissions outside a signal’s necessary bandwidth that can be reduced or
eliminated without affecting the information transmitted.
QUESTION: Which of the following constitutes a spurious emission? (E1B01)

ANSWER: An emission outside the signals necessary bandwidth that can be
reduced or eliminated without affecting the information transmitted

There are also restrictions on erecting antennas. For example, if you are
installing an amateur station antenna at a site at or near a public use
airport, you may have to notify the Federal Aviation Administration and
register it with the FCC as required by Part 17 of FCC rules.

QUESTION: Which of the following additional rules apply if you are
installing an amateur station antenna at a site at or near a public use
airport? (E1B06)

ANSWER: You may have to notify the Federal Aviation Administration and
register it with the FCC as required by Part 17 of the FCC rules

Should you run into problems with your local government when erecting an
antenna, you should familiarize yourself with FCC PRB-1. PRB-1 states that
while local governments may put restrictions on antenna structures for
height, safety and aesthetics concerns, they must reasonably accommodate
amateur operations. It is important to note that PRB-1 does not cover
covenants or home-owner agreements (HOAs).
QUESTION: To what type of regulations does PRB-1 apply? (E1B07)

ANSWER: State and local zoning
QUESTION: What does PRB-1 require of regulations affecting amateur radio?
(E1B11)

ANSWER: Reasonable accommodations of amateur radio must be made

RACES operation



Because RACES operation is quasi-governmental, there are some rules about
RACES operations. First of all, any FCC-licensed amateur station certified
by the responsible civil defense organization for the area served may be
operated in RACES. All amateur service frequencies authorized to the
control operator are authorized to an amateur station participating in
RACES.
QUESTION: Which amateur stations may be operated under RACES rules? (E1B09)

ANSWER: Any FCC-licensed amateur station certified by the responsible civil
defense organization for the area served
QUESTION: What frequencies are authorized to an amateur station operating
under RACES rules? (E1B10)

ANSWER: All amateur service frequencies authorized to the control operator

As you probably know by now, harmful interference is a big thing in amateur
radio. That being the case, this section has several questions about
situations in which an amateur station might cause such interference.
QUESTION: Within what distance must an amateur station protect an FCC
monitoring facility from harmful interference? (E1B03)

ANSWER: 1 mile
QUESTION: What must be done before placing an amateur station within an
officially designated wilderness area or wildlife preserve, or an area
listed in the National Register of Historic Places? (E1B04)

ANSWER: An Environmental Assessment must be submitted to the FCC
QUESTION: What is the National Radio Quiet Zone? (E1B05)

ANSWER: An area surrounding the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

The NRAO is located in Green Bank, West Virginia.
QUESTION: What limitations may the FCC place on an amateur station if its
signal causes interference to domestic broadcast reception, assuming that
the receivers involved are of good engineering design? (E1B08)

ANSWER: The amateur station must avoid transmitting during certain hours on
frequencies that cause the interference
QUESTION: What must the control operator of a repeater operating in the 70
cm band do if a radiolocation system experiences interference from that
repeater? (E1B12)

ANSWER: Cease operation or make changes to the repeater to mitigate the
interference

Finally, there is a random question on Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM).
QUESTION: Which of the following is an acceptable bandwidth for Digital
Radio Mondiale (DRM) based voice or SSTV digital transmissions made on the
HF amateur bands? (E1B02)

ANSWER: 3 kHz

The post 2020 Extra Class study guide: E1B – Station restrictions and
special operations: restrictions on station location; general operating
restrictions; spurious emissions; antenna structure restrictions; RACES
operations appeared first on KB6NUs Ham Radio Blog.



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